By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche
The creation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized clinical imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional photographs of the human physique, with mammoth distinction among varieties of tender tissue. the iconic legacy of CT is, although, the spur that it gave to the following creation of tomographic imaging innovations into diagnostic nuclear drugs and the terribly speedy improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.
This booklet is a non-mathematical creation to the foundations underlying sleek scientific imaging, taking tomography as its valuable subject. the 1st 3 chapters conceal the final ideas of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins sleek imaging, and a overview of the main concerns interested by radiation security. the following chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The medical position of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by using fictional scientific histories. 3 appendices offer a extra mathematical historical past to the tomographic process, the rules of mathematical Fourier equipment, and the maths of MRI.
This revised version contains new introductory sections at the appropriate physics of molecules commonly, and water, specifically. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. numerous figures have additionally been revised.
The booklet is meant to supply a large introductory historical past to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate taking into consideration focusing on scientific physics, and the scientific scholar or clinician utilizing tomographic recommendations in learn and medical perform.
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Extra resources for An introduction to the principles of medical imaging
Once the digitisation step along a projection is established, by for example the choice of detector size, then the interval between successive projections in K-space is arranged to achieve uniform sampling. Any under-sampling in a particular direction will introduce artefacts again as a direct result of the Fourier reconstruction process. Signal to Noise Ratio All medical imaging schemes suffer to a greater or lesser extent from the effects of random noise. Both X-ray and gamma ray detection is a random process which has an inevitable associated statistical uncertainty.
Roentgen’s discovery of the penetrating X-ray, in 1896, started a revolution in medical imaging and began a slow process of reunification of medical science with physics, chemistry and engineering, the so-called exact sciences. From about the time of Newton onwards, the exact sciences were able to make very rapid progress in both experimental technique and the establishment of approximate mathematical laws governing the behaviour of inanimate nature. The mathematical models, although beautiful and deserving of study in their own right, owe their importance to their power of prediction.
Lauterbur published the first NMR image using magnetic field gradients to image a human finger in Nature in 1973. The history of this paper contains one of science’s most delightful ironies. The referees originally rejected the paper on the grounds that the idea lacked applications! Damadian published the first whole-body image in 1977. He had earlier taken out a patent on the application of NMR imaging to medicine without specifying a precise localising scheme. The earliest images were obtained either in very small laboratory superconducting magnets or whole body resistive (copper) magnets.
An introduction to the principles of medical imaging by Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche