By Renata Dmowska (ed.), Barry Saltzman (ed.)
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Additional resources for Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 32
An analytical solution of crack propagation for any given initial and boundary conditions is extremely difficult and only a few simple geometrical models have been solved. Practically all the available solutions have been obtained with the use of numerical methods. In numerical modeling three calculation techniques are in general use: the finite element, finite difference, and boundary integral methods. The boundary integral method seems to be more accurate than the other two (Andrews, 1985). A simpler class of numerical solutions is that for which crack motion is specified a priori rather than being derived from a failure criterion.
34p/2zfp; it is the most widely used estimate of stress release. 01 to 10 MPa, similarly as for natural earthquakes. , 1975, 1979; Spottiswoode and McGarr, 1975). The apparent stress is where p is the shear modulus of the source material and E, is the radiated energy. If the P-wave contribution to the seismic energy and the azimuthal dependence of the energy flux are neglected, the Brune stress drop is a constant multiple of the apparent stress (Snoke, 1987). , 1990). Two of the estimates of dynamic stress drop are calculated from records of the ground velocity and acceleration.
Following the small-scale failure, the large fault zone deforms under the influence of the ambient state of stress, and the large-scale deformation results in a lower average stress drop over the total area of faulting. Although the proposed inhomogeneous'faulting model is very simple in concept, it has been demonstrated by McGarr (1981, 1984b) to be quite useful for the analysis of ground-motion observations. Simple barrier/asperity models are proposed by Kuhnt et al. (1989) to interpret the source parameters of low stress drop seismic events induced by room and pillar mining in a deep mine and directly associated with a stope area.
Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 32 by Renata Dmowska (ed.), Barry Saltzman (ed.)