By Dr. Andrew J Harding, Dr. James Chin
On sixteen September 1963 Malaysia got here into being with the accession of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore to the prevailing Federation of Malaya. This ebook marks the fiftieth anniversary of this impressive occasion in South East Asia's background. the focal point of the publication can be almost always at the adventure of Sabah and Sarawak as matters of the federation. It seems to be on the adventure of federalism from a few diversified views, holding in brain not only the results of federalism on Sabah and Sarawak but in addition the consequences at the federation as an entire. Has the cut price of 1963 been adhered to? Has Malaysian federalism been a winning instance of this manner of presidency in Asia, or has the discount been undermined in methods opposite to the unique deal within the Malaysia contract of 1963? What were the sensible results on East Malaysia in the course of 50 years?
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Extra info for 50 Years of Malaysia. Federalism Revisited
Looks at the core issues causing tensions between the federal government and Sabah and Sarawak. He argues that the issues can be summarised into five key areas: (a) The ‘20 points’; (b) Sabah and Sarawak’s status in the Federation; (c) manufactured consent towards the formation of Malaysia; (d) Federal intervention in state politics in Sarawak and Sabah; and (e) Ketuanan Melayu and Ketuanan Islam He finds that Sabah and Sarawak suffer under-development; that Borneonisation has been replaced with Malayanisation; that the indigenous people are treated as second-class bumiputera; that resources are exploited for the benefit of Muslim bumiputera; and that there is discrimination against non-Muslim bumiputera.
So there is something worth celebrating, and also something worth investigating. It may indeed be objected that survival is not the test of success, but rather whether the federal bargain has been observed and has led to stability and development. These are genuine questions in the context of East Malaysia at least; and it is to these questions we were seeking some answers as we convened in Singapore. As readers will discover, the authors of these essays maintain a critical perspective on federalism as practised in relation to Sabah and Sarawak over the last fifty years.
This grant is calculated by multiplying an average maintenance cost per mile by the number of miles of road the state has, and so favours those states with extensive highways and therefore high maintenance costs. Arguably this leaves states that need infrastructural development at some disadvantage; however, since this argument applies principally to Sabah and Sarawak whose development needs are dealt with by other means, a problem of entrenched underdevelopment seems not to arise from this system.
50 Years of Malaysia. Federalism Revisited by Dr. Andrew J Harding, Dr. James Chin